A Tunable and Electrically Small Antenna for Compact GNSS Receivers.
Yevhen Yashchyshyn;Dmytro Vynnyk;Volodymyr Haiduchok;Ivan Solskii;Changying Wu;Grzegorz Bogdan;Jozef Modelski
Department of Applied Physics and Nanomaterials Science, Lviv Polytechnic National University, 79013 Lviv, Ukraine
Scientific Research Company “Electron-Carat” Branch Enterprise of PJSC Concern—Electron (CARAT), 79031 Lviv, Ukraine
Institute of Radioelectronics and Multimedia Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
School of Electronics and Information, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
antenna;electrically small antenna;global navigation satellite systems;GNSS;tunable antenna
European Union's Horizon2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant ; Foundation for Polish Science (FNP)Foundation for Polish Science
The electronic receivers of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) are implemented in various handheld electronic devices such as laptops, smartphones, and smartwatches; therefore, their dimensions are of critical importance. Achieving a GNSS terminal of a small size is difficult due to its relatively low operational frequency (L-band), which is equivalent to a wavelength of approximately 24 cm. As an efficient half-wavelength antenna is too large for compact devices, in this paper, an electrically small antenna (ESA) for GNSS terminals is presented. The antenna was miniaturized by using a dielectric block with relatively high permittivity, making some parts virtual, and optimizing its geometry. The operational frequency of the ESA is tunable by means of metallic rods of variable heights inserted into a cylindrical cavity drilled inside the dielectric block. The results confirm the feasibility of the concept and the usability of the ESA for compact GNSS terminals.